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Introduction of BIPV Building Integrated Photovoltaic Project

2022-03-25

Photovoltaic building, the full name of Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV, Building Integrated Photovoltaic), is different from the form of the photovoltaic system attached to the building (BAPV, Building Attached PV), which is a way to integrate solar power (photovoltaic) products into buildings. Technology, the use of specially designed special photovoltaic modules, the replacement of the original building materials or building components during installation, and the photovoltaic system integrated with the building.


BAPV is the combination of photovoltaic arrays and buildings, such as laying solar panels on the roof. This is a commonly used form and is noted for not taking up additional floor space;


BIPV is the integration of photovoltaic arrays and buildings, such as photovoltaic tile roofs, photovoltaic curtain walls, and photovoltaic lighting roofs. This method is an integrated form of photovoltaic buildings, and photovoltaic modules are not only power generation devices, but also part of the outer structure of the building.


laying solar panels on the roof



The modules used in BIPV are power generation glass, which is a new material and refers to cadmium telluride thin-film(CdTe) solar cells. Glass is just a light-transmitting substrate material. Coated with (CdTe) photoelectric material, the ordinary glass can be changed from an insulator to a conductive conductor. It can replace bricks, curtain walls, and other building materials, and can be better adapted to photovoltaic building integration.


laying solar panels on the roof



In addition to the power generation function, the photovoltaic building system also has the necessary performance and unique decorative functions for the outer protection of the building, such as wind pressure resistance, water tightness, air tightness, sound insulation, heat preservation, and shading. BIPV achieves the perfect combination of building envelope, building energy saving, solar energy utilization, and building decoration. Its main features are:


(1) Meet the requirements of architectural aesthetics

In photovoltaic buildings, junction boxes, bypass diodes, connecting lines, etc. can be hidden in the curtain wall structure through related designs, which can not only prevent direct sunlight and rain erosion but also not affect the appearance of the building. It’s perfectly combined with the building;


(2) Meet the lighting needs of the building

Photovoltaic buildings are double-sided glass components made of smooth ultra-white tempered glass, which can be adjusted to achieve a specific light transmittance. It can meet the requirements of light transparency even in the sightseeing area of the building. It should be noted that the greater the light transmittance of the photovoltaic module, the thinner the arrangement of the cells, and the smaller the power generation;


(3) Photovoltaic power generation is a pollution-free green renewable energy source, which can reduce the environmental pollution caused by conventional power generation and is conducive to environmental protection;


(4) The perfect combination of building facade enclosure, energy-saving, and solar energy conversion without occupying precious and scarce land resources;


(5) In-situ power generation and in-situ use, reducing the loss of power transmission;


(6)Power supply during the peak period of electricity consumption during the day, relieve the peak electricity demand, and realize the self-sufficiency of part of the electricity;


(7) Simple maintenance, low maintenance cost, reliable operation, and good stability;


(8) The solar cell as a key component has a long service life, and the life of the crystalline silicon solar cell can reach more than 25 years. The power generation capacity can be expanded according to needs.


(9) Combined with other roofing materials, it has the effect of thermal insulation, reduces air conditioning load, and saves energy consumption;


(10) Integrated with the building, it can be used as a maintenance structural material for the building, reducing the overall cost of the building, saving the installation cost, without the need for additional land or building other facilities. It’s suitable for use in densely populated areas, which is expensive for the land of urban architecture is particularly important.


Main forms of BIPV


(1) Facade or roof systems, photovoltaic roof, and wall structure refer to the addition of an independent photovoltaic power generation system after the construction of the building are completed. This type has no special requirements for the panel process, and ordinary photovoltaic modules will work. However, it needs to consider the wind pressure, the elevation at which the seismic and wind loads are located, and the sealing performance, and choose the appropriate installation angle and direction according to the local meteorological conditions. In the whole photovoltaic building integration, solar roof power generation accounts for 3/4, mainly because the roof has more light-receiving area and can receive more solar radiation when installed on the roof.


Facade integrated photovoltaic systems are divided into translucent curtain walls and opaque curtain walls. Opaque curtain walls mostly use opaque monocrystalline silicon and polycrystalline silicon components, which have high power generation efficiency. For curtain walls that need lighting, opaque photovoltaic cells are used, and amorphous silicon thin-film cells are mostly used. The advantages are high light transmittance, low price, convenient production, and customizable color appearance. The disadvantage is that the utilization rate of light energy is low. However, the light transmission requirements can also be achieved by adjusting the gaps between the photovoltaic cells or reducing the arrangement.


(3) Shadow Voltaic PV systems. It is mainly used in pavilions, carports, and other structures. Photoelectric panels are used as sunshade components. In addition to using idle roof space to generate electricity, it also blocks ultraviolet radiation, which is conducive to slowing down the aging of vehicles and lowering the temperature inside the car. It is also conducive to saving sunshade materials and a rich architectural appearance.






 
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